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sea slugs
of the world
(formerly Subclass OPISTHOBRANCHIA
(früher Unterklasse OPISTHOBRANCHIA

All images are copyrighted by the photographers.
No form of reproduction is authorized.
Alle Aufnahmen sind durch copyright geschützt.
Keinerlei Vervielfältigung ist erlaubt.
I recommend to search the internet with a search engine.
Ich empfehle das Internet mit einer Suchmaschine zu durchsuchen.

 

Taxonomy modified on 12 January 2011 according to:
Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005).
"Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families".
Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks) 47 (1-2): 1–397.
ISBN 3925919724. ISSN 0076-2997.

and:
Jörger, Stöger, Kano, Fukuda, Knebelsberger & Schrödl (2010).
"On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia".
BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323. online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/323

Taxonomy of the family Chromodorididae modified on 19 April 2012 according to:
Rebecca Fay Johnson & Terrence M. Gosliner. 2012.
Traditional Taxonomic Groupings Mask Evolutionary History:
A Molecular Phylogeny and New Classification of the Chromodorid Nudibranchs. online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033479

Kingdom:  Animalia  Linnaeus, 1758
Subkingdom:  Eumetazoa  Butschli, 1910
unranked:  Bilateria  Hatschek, 1888
Superphylum:  Lophotrochozoa  Halanych, Bacheller, Auginaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake, 1995
Phylum:  Mollusca  Linnaeus, 1758
Class:  Gastropoda  Cuvier, 1795
Subclass  Heterobranchia  J.E. Gray, 1840
informal group:  Lower Heterobranchia (Allogastropoda)  Haszprunar, 1985

(formerly placed in the subclass Opisthobranchia, Order:  CEPHALASPIDEA)
Superfamily: Acteonoidea d'Orbigny, 1843
Family: Acteonidae d'Orbigny, 1843
Family: Aplustridae J.E. Gray, 1847
Family: Bullinidae Gray, 1850
Superfamily: Ringiculoidea Philippi, 1853
Family: Ringiculidae Philippi, 1853

Clade: Euthyneura  Spengel, 1881
Clade: Euopisthobranchia  Jörger et al., 2010
Clade: Aplysiomorpha Pelseneer, 1906
Family: Akeridae Pilsbry, 1893
Family: Aplysiidae Lamarck, 1809
Clade: Umbraculida Odhner, 1939
Superfamily: Umbraculoidea  Dall, 1889 (1827)
Family: Tylodinidae Gray, 1847
Family: Umbraculidae Dall, 1889
Clade: Cephalaspidea P. Fischer, 1883
Superfamily: Bulloidea Lamarck, 1801
Family: Bullidae Lamarck, 1801
Superfamily: Diaphanoidea Odhner, 1914
Family: Diaphanidae Odhner, 1914
Superfamily: Haminoeoidea Pilsbry, 1895
Family: Bullactidae Thiele, 1926
Family: Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895
Family: Smaragdinellidae A. Adams & Reeve, 1848
Superfamily: Philinoidea J.E. Gray, 1850
Family: Aglajidae Pilsbry, 1895 (1847)
Family: Cylichnidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
Family: Gastropteridae Swainson, 1840
Family: Philinidae J.E. Gray, 1850
Family: Philinoglossidae Hertling, 1932
Family: Plusculidae Marcus, 1953
Family: Retusidae Thiele, 1925
Family: Notodiaphanidae Thiele, 1931
Clade: Runcinacea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
Superfamily: Runcinoidea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
Family: Ilbiidae Burn, 1963
Family: Runcinidae J.E. Gray, 1857
Order: Gymnosomata de Blainville, 1824
Suborder: Gymnoptera van der Spoel, 1976
Family: Hydromylidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954
Family: Laginiopsidae Pruvot-Fol, 1922
Suborder: Gymnosomata de Blainville, 1824
Family: Clionidae Rafinesque, 1815
Subfamily: Clioninae Pruvot-Fol, 1924
Family: Cliopsidae O.G. Costa, 1873
Family: Notobranchaeidae Pelseneer, 1886
Family: Pneumodermatidae Pelseneer, 1887
Clade: Thecosomata de Blainville, 1824
Superfamily:Cavolinioidea  J.E. Gray, 1850
Family:Cavoliniidae  J.E. Gray, 1850 (1815)
Subfamily: Cavoliinae J.E. Gray, 1850 (formerly Hyalaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 )
Subfamily: Clioinae Jeffreys, 1869 (formerly Cleodoridae J.E. Gray, 1840 - nomen oblitum)
Subfamily: Cuvierininae van der Spoel, 1967 (formerly : Cuvieriidae J.E. Gray, 1840 (nom. inv.); Tripteridae J.E. Gray, 1850 )
Subfamily: Creseinae Curry, 1982
Family: Limacinidae J.E. Gray, 1840 (formerly : Spirialidae Chenu, 1859 ; Spiratellidae Dall, 1921 )
Family: Sphaerocinidae Janssen & Maxwell, 1995 fossil
Family: Praecuvierinidae Janssen, 2006  fossil
Superfamily: Cymbulioidea J.E. Gray, 1840 ( formerly Pseudothecosomata)
Family: Cymbuliidae J.E. Gray, 1840
Subfamily: Cymbuliinae J.E. Gray, 1840
Subfamily: Glebinae van der Spoel, 1976
Family: Desmopteridae Chun, 1889
Family: Peraclidae Tesch, 1913
Superorder: Panpulmonata Jörger et al., 2010
Superfamily: Amphiboloidea J.E. Gray, 1840
Superfamily: Pyramidelloidea J.E. Gray, 1840
Superfamily: Siphonarioidea J.E. Gray, 1827
Superfamily: Glacidorboidea Ponder, 1986
Order: Sacoglossa J.E. Gray, 1827
Superfamily: Cylindrobulloidea Thiele, 1931
Family: Cylindrobullidae Thiele, 1931
Suborder: Oxynoacea Odhner, 1939
Family: Juliidae E.A. Smith, 1885
Family: Oxynoidae Stoliczka, 1868
Family: Volvatellidae Pilsbry, 1895
Suborder: Plakobranchacea Jensen, 1996
Superfamily: Plakobranchoidea J.E. Gray, 1840
Family: Boselliidae Ev. Marcus, 1982
Family: Plakobranchidae Gray, 1840
Family: Platyhedylidae Salvini-Plawen, 1973
Superfamily: Limapontioidea J.E. Gray, 1840
Family: Limapontiidae J.E. Gray, 1847
Family: Caliphyllidae Tiberi, 1881
Family: Hermaeidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
Clade: Acochlidiacea Odhner, 1937
Superfamily: Acochlidioidea Küthe, 1935
Family: Acochlidiidae Küthe, 1935
Family: Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952
Family: Pseudunelidae Rankin, 1979
Family: Tantulidae Rankin, 1979
Superfamily: Parhedyloidea Thiele, 1931
Family: Aitengidae Swennen & Buatip, 2009
Family: Asperspinidae Rankin, 1979
Family: Parhedylidae Thiele, 1931

Clade: Nudipleura Wägele & Willan, 2000

Clade: Pleurobranchomorpha Schmekel, 1985
Superfamily: Pleurobranchoidea   J.E. Gray, 1827
Family: Pleurobranchidae J.E. Gray, 1827
Subfamily: Pleurobranchinae J.E. Gray, 1827
Subfamily: Pleurobranchaeinae Pilsbry, 1896

Clade: Nudibranchia  Cuvier, 1817
 Family:  Rhodopidae von Ihering, 1876
 Suborder: Euctenidiacea Tardy, 1970
  Infraorder: Doridacea  Thiele, 1931
   Superfamily: Doridoidea Rafinesque, 1815
     Family: Actinocyclidae Pruvot-Fol, 1934
     Family: Cadlinidae Bergh, 1891
     Family: Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891
     Family: Discodorididae Bergh, 1891
     Family: Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815
   Superfamily: Onchidoridoidea  J.E. Gray, 1827
     Family: Akiodorididae  Millen & Martynov, 2005 
     Family: Goniodorididae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
     Family: Onchidorididae J.E. Gray, 1827
   Superfamily: Phyllidioidea  Rafinesque, 1814
     Family: Dendrodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 (1864)
     Family: Mandeliidae Valdés & Gosliner, 1999
     Family: Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814
   Superfamily: Polyceroidea  Alder & Hancock, 1845
      Family: Aegiretidae P. Fischer, 1883
      Family: Gymnodorididae Odhner, 1941
      Family: Hexabranchidae Bergh, 1891
      Family: Okadaiidae Baba, 1930
      Family: Polyceridae Alder & Hancock, 1845
       Subfamily: Kalinginae Pruvot-Fol, 1956
       Subfamily: Kankelibranchinae Ortea, Espinosa & Caballer, 2004
       Subfamily: Nembrothinae Burn, 1967
       Subfamily: Polycerinae Alder & Hancock, 1845
       Subfamily: Triophinae Odhner, 1941
  Infraorder: Gnathodoridacea  Odhner, 1934
   Superfamily: Bathydoridoidea  Bergh, 1891
    Family: Bathydorididae  Bergh, 1891 
 Suborder: Dexiarchia  Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001
  Infraorder: Cladobranchia  Willan & Morton, 1984
  Parvorder: Aeolidida  Odhner, 1934
   Superfamily: Aeolidioidea J.E. Gray, 1827
     Family: Aeolidiidae J.E. Gray, 1827
     Family: Babakinidae  Roller, 1973
     Family: Facelinidae  Bergh, 1889
     Family: Glaucidae  Menke, 1828
     Family: Piseinotecidae  Edmunds, 1970
     Family: Pleurolidiidae  Burn, 1966
     Family: Unidentidae  Millen & Hermosillo, 2012
   Superfamily: Fionoidea  J.E. Gray, 1857
     Family: Fionidae J.E. Gray, 1857
     Family: Pseudovermidae Thiele, 1931
   Superfamily: Flabellinoidea  Bergh, 1889
     Family: Flabellinidae Bergh, 1889
     Family: Notaeolidiidae Eliot, 1910
  Parvorder: Dendronotida  Odhner, 1934
Superfamily: Tritonioidea Lamarck, 1809
  Family: Aranucidae Odhner, 1936
  Family: Bornellidae Bergh, 1874
  Family: Dendronotidae Allman, 1845
  Family: Hancockiidae MacFarland, 1923
  Family: Lomanotidae Bergh, 1890
  Family: Phylliroidae  Menke, 1830
  Family: Scyllaeidae Alder & Hancock, 1855
  Family: Tethydidae Rafinesque, 1815
  Family: Tritoniidae  Lamarck, 1809
  Parvorder: [unassigned] Cladobranchia  Willan & Morton, 1984
   Family: Charcotiidae Odhner, 1926
   Family: Dironidae Eliot, 1910
   Family: Dotidae J.E. Gray, 1853
   Family: Embletoniidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954
   Family: Goniaeolididae Odhner, 1907
   Family: Heroidae J.E. Gray, 1857
   Family: Lemindidae Griffiths, 1985
   Family: Madrellidae Preston, 1911
   Family: Pinufiidae Marcus & Marcus, 1960
   Family: Proctonotidae  J.E. Gray, 1853
  Parvorder: Euarminida   Odhner, 1939
   Superfamily: Arminoidea Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 (1841)
    Family: Arminidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 (1841)
    Family: Doridomorphidae  Marcus & Marcus, 1960
  Infraorder: Pseudoeuctenidiacea Tardy, 1970
    Superfamily: Doridoxoidea Bergh, 1899
 

 


 
 
 
 
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